Marcus Moziah Garvey (1887 – 1940 Marcus   Garvey   migrated   to   the   United   States   from   his   native   Jamaica   at   the   age   of   29.   By   1916   he   had become   the   idol   of   the   black   masses   in   America,   the   Caribbean   and   Latin   America,   where   under   his leadership   branches   of   the   "Universal   Negro   Improvement   Association   (UNIA)   were   formed.   A   dynamic orator   and   fluent   writer,   Garvey   was   also   a   master   of   pageantry.   But   his   charisma   alone   cannot   explain   the remarkable   response   he   obtained   from   black   America.   The   attraction   can   be   found   in   his   policies,   for Marcus   Garvey   was   one   of   the   first   black   racial   nationalists.   Unlike   the   communist   black   power   movements, which   have   been   used   to   bring   down   the   white   man,   Garvey’s   idea   was   merely   to   improve   the   conditions and ability of his fellow blacks. Like   many   black   leaders   Marcus   Garvey   was   first   attracted   to   left-wing   movements.   He   worked   in   close alliance   with   communists   and   socialists   in   the   "Afro-American   Liberty   League".   Garvey   did   not   confine   his interest   to   social   and   economic   problems,   he   also   understood   and   gave   expression   to   the   spiritual   needs   of American   blacks   in   their   striving   for   racial   recognition. After   being   away   from   their   homeland   for   many   years, they   had   to   a   great   extent   lost   their   culture   and   identity.   Garvey   tried   to   engender   a   feeling   of   pride   in   their origins and to give the black community racial self respect. At   a   magnificent   UNIA   conference   in   New   York   in   1920,   the   delegates   unanimously   appointed   themselves representatives   of Africa,   even   though   there   was   not   one   genuine African   name   among   the   122   signatories to   the   declaration.   When   the   League   of   Nations   was   discussing   the   future   of   Germany’s   African   colonies after   the   First-World-War,   Garvey   proposed   that   instead   of   the   colonies   being   granted   self-government,   the mandate to govern them should be granted to the UNIA. Garvey’s   racialist,   separationist,   ideas   were   finally   developed   when   he   wrote   in   1923,   "Hitherto   the   other negro   movements   (with   the   exception   of   Booker   T.   Washington)   sought   to   teach   the   negro   to   aspire   to social   equality   with   whites,   meaning   thereby   the   right   to   inter-marry   and   fraternise   in   every   social   way.   Still some   negro   organisations   continue   to   preach   this   race-destroying   doctrine,   added   to   a   programme   of political   agitation   and   aggression."....   "The   time   is   opportune   to   regulate   the   relationship   between   both races.   Let   the   negro   have   a   country   of   his   own.   Help   him   to   return   to   his   original   home,   Africa,   and   there give   him   the   opportunity   to   climb   from   the   lowest   to   the   highest   positions   in   a   state   of   his   own."...   "We   of   the UNIA   cede   to   the   white   man   the   right   to   do   as   he   pleases   in   his   own   country,   and   that   is   why   we   believe   in not making any trouble when he says that "America is a white man’s country." In   1922   Garvey   paid   a   visit   to   the   Imperial   Wizard   of   the   Ku   Klux   Klan   in   Georgia.   The   white   racialists   were natural   allies   for   Garvey.   Their   open   white   racialism   helped   to   develop   the   race   consciousness   of American blacks in a positive way and to stimulate interest in the UNIA-sponsored movement for repatriation to Africa. In   a   message   dated   October   28th   1925,   Garvey   introduced   a   speaker   from   the   Anglo   Saxon   Clubs   of America   (the   Northern   KKK   counterpart)   whom   he   had   invited   to   speak   at   Liberty   Hall:   "Mr   Powell   and   his organisation   sympathize   with   us   and   we   sympathize   with   them.   I   feel   and   believe   that   we   should   work together   for   the   purpose   of   bringing   about   the   ideal   of   purification   and   the   unbridled   freedom   of   self- development and self expression." Garvey   not   only   rejected   the   idea   of   political   alliance   with   white   leftists,   but   preferred   an   understanding   with white   employers.   However,   the   US   big   business   establishment   were   not   keen   on   allowing   Garvey   to propagate   this   racialist   ideal.   In   1925   he   was   arrested   on   a   trumped-up   charge   and   sentenced   to   five   years imprisonment.   Garvey's   reaction   was   to   move   even   further   to   the   right.   He   proclaimed   that   "Capitalism"   is necessary   for   the   progress   of   the   world...   but   there   should   be   a   limit   to   the   corporate   use   or   control   of   it. All control,   use   and   investment   of   money   should   be   the   prerogative   of   the   State   with   the   concurrent   authority   of the   people".   After   his   prison   term   Garvey   was   deported   to   Jamaica,   where   he   endeavored   to   resurrect   the UNIA. Deprived   of   his   usual   source   of   funds,   Garvey   did   not   manage   to   make   much   impact,   although   he   was   able to   produce   a   newspaper,   The   Blackman,   and   he   also   entered   local   municipal   politics.   The   Blackman became   a   daily   paper   and   was   superseded   by   The   New   Jamaican   in   1932.   By   1934   his   career   was faltering.   His   presses   were   seized   by   creditors   which   caused   Garvey   a   severe   set-back.   Nevertheless   he undertook   several   speaking   tours   in   Canada   and   South America.   It   was   for   Garvey   a   heroic   last   stand.   His fortunes   continued   to   decline,   his   magazine   folded   yet   again,   and   his   health   was   ailing.   His   family   returned to Jamaica, and Garvey died alone in London on June 10th 1940. See Editor's comments below. Garvey   held   the   key   to   Black   success   and   could   have   brought   an   end   to   racial   strife.   Logic   would   indicate that   Garvey's   sensible   and   peaceful   ideas   would   win   the   battle   for   minds.   For   the   past   hundred   years   or more,   those   with   money   have   controlled   the   thinking   of   the   masses.   As   a   result   self-reliance,   identity, initiative,   logic,   and   self-worth   have   played   a   lesser   part   in   the   muddled   thinking   of   the   majority.   Degeneracy caused   by   multi-racialism   and   the   irreligious   system   of   financial   usury   are   two   factors   which   hold   the masses   in   blind   obedience   to   their   accursed   masters.   It   is   a   sad   fact   that   the   followers   of   nationalist   leaders put    insufficient    effort    into    the    movement    themselves.    The    effect    of    this    is    when    the    leader    dies    the movement   comes   to   an   end.   We   should   support   true   nationalists   in   every   country   in   order   to   overcome   our common foe, the Internationalists. Since   writing   this   piece   in   2003   events   in   Africa   have   become   considerably   worse   due   to   interference   from US    big    business    and    the   American    based    World    Government    people.    The    poverty,    degradation    and starvation   these   groups   have   caused   are   being   used   as   a   bargaining   tool   to   asset   strip   Black   Africa,   and take   charge   of   all   commerce   and   the   rest   of   the   valuable   resources   they   didn't   already   have.   This   situation was   only   made   possible   by   the   educated   and   most   capable Africans   leaving   their   homelands   in   droves,   and going   to   America   and   Europe.   Marcus   Garvey   could   see   the   effect   of   mass-emigration   long   before   many others; this is what made him a truly great man.
Updated 2 nd. Oct17 - 21:00 bst
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